REAL Democracy History Calendar: January 20 – 26

January 20

1998 – “Oprah Winfrey vs. The Beef People” airs on PBS Newshour
“Texas cattle producers sued Oprah in 1998 for “defaming” hamburgers and beef by discussing mad cow disease on her program. Texas is 1 of 13 states with “food disparagement acts” that make it easier for food corporations to sue their critics, including journalists and authors, for libel. They also allow for punitive damages and attorney fees. Oprah was accused of “whipping up anti-beef ‘lynch mob'” against beef, which resulted in a drop in beef prices. Food libel laws are meant to silence and intimidate — denying human beings first amendment free speech rights.

Oprah won her case in court — no doubt due, in part, to her ability to hire the very best lawyers.
Source: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law-jan-june98-fooddef_1-20/

2012 – Occupy the Courts campaign, organized by Move to Amend
On the 2nd anniversary of the Citizens United v. FEC Supreme Court decision, Move to Amend affiliate and partner groups connect with local Occupy groups and other organizations to hold mass actions at federal court buildings across the nation, educating about and protesting the Citizens United decision and calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and money as speech.

2018 – Article, “Citizens United vs. United Citizens: The Showdown of the Century” published
“When the US Supreme Court decided in favor of the plaintiff in the Citizens United case on January 21, 2010, did the five justices who supported it know that their decision would open the door to a fascist state within six short years? In large part, Citizens United caused a minority of voters, aided by the Electoral College, to elect a real live major international corporation in the form of Donald Trump as President. The fusion of government and corporate rule is complete.”
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2018/01/20/citizens-united-vs-united-citizens-showdown-century

2019 – Article “A new Supreme Court is poised to take a chunk out of MLK’s legacy” published
“One is called the ‘child of the storm.’ Another is ‘the crown jewel.’ The third was dubbed ‘the voice of justice.’

“They are the three great laws of the civil rights movement: the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.

“A new conservative bloc on the Supreme Court though may soon treat them as something else: outdated ‘racial entitlements’ that need to be put back in their place.”
https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/20/us/mlk-legacy-supreme-court/index.html

January 21

2010 – Citizens United v. Federal Elections Committee [558 U.S.310] Supreme Court decision (this is the 10th Anniversary)
Supreme Court overturns most provisions of McCain-Feingold legislation that restricts corporate money in federal elections and reverses a hundred-year precedent of Congressional authority to regulate federal elections. The decision merely expands already existing constitutional “rights” to spend money in elections.

2010 – Move to Amend national campaign is launched
Multi-racial and inter-generational outside-the-beltway grassroots organization begins. It seeks a 28th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The amendment would abolish all never-intended inalienable constitutional rights for corporate entities (corporate “personhood”) and to end the doctrine that money is equivalent to free speech.

2017 – Women’s March – global marches to promote human rights, etc.
“The Women’s March was a worldwide protest on January 21, 2017, to advocate legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues, including women’s rights, immigration reform, healthcare reform, the natural environment, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion, and workers’ rights. The rallies were aimed at Donald Trump, immediately following his inauguration as President of the United States, largely due to statements and positions attributed to him regarded by many as anti-women or otherwise offensive. It was the largest single-day demonstration in U.S. history.The first planned protest was in Washington, D.C., and is known as the Women’s March on Washington.” Source: Wikipedia

January 22

1890 – The United Mine Workers Association (UMWA) was founded in Columbus, Ohio
The UMWA sought to improve the lives of miners through reduced work hours, higher wages, and improved mine safety conditions. In 1894, Ohio Mine Worker president John McBride stated, “All honest, ardent advocates of labor’s cause that corporate power, when aided and abetted by the judicial, executive and military arm of the state and national governments can and will override the rights of our people and oppress wage workers, regardless of the efforts of organized labor, as now constituted and directed, to prevent it… By entering into politics we can free ourselves from the chain of slavery.”

1973 – Roe v. Wade U.S. Supreme Court decision
The Supreme Court rules that state statutes against abortion are vague and infringe on a woman’s 9th and 14th Amendment rights (to privacy). Abortion is legalized in the first trimester of pregnancy. (410 U.S. 113, 1973)

January 23

1964 – 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enacted
Poll taxes, which were used to keep Blacks and others from voting in some states, are abolished. “The right…to vote…shall not be denied…by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.”

2018 – Published article, “CFPB Drops Investigation Into Payday Lender That Contributed To Mick Mulvaney’s Campaigns”
“Mick Mulvaney’s Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) quietly closed an investigation into a payday lender headquartered in Mulvaney’s home state Monday. The company previously donated to the former congressman’s political campaigns.

“Payday lender World Acceptance Corporation announced in a press release Monday that it received a letter from the CFPB stating that the financial watchdog had closed its nearly four-year investigation into the company’s marketing and lending practices. The company, which is headquartered in South Carolina, has given at least $4,500 in campaign donations to Mulvaney, who represented South Carolina in the House for six years before becoming President Donald Trump’s budget director last year.

“The CFPB declined comment on World Acceptance Corporation’s press release. The investigation followed a 2013 report by ProPublica and Marketplace that found World Acceptance Corporation issued loans that were ‘deceptively expensive’ and packaged with “nearly useless insurance products” while trapping borrowers in a ‘debt cycle.’”
https://www.ibtimes.com/political-capital/cfpb-drops-investigation-payday-lender-contributed-mick-mulvaneys-campaigns

January 24

1965 – Death of Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
“Lobbyists are the touts of protected industries.”

1910 – Birth of “Granny D” — grandmother who walked across the U.S. for campaign finance reform
Doris Haddock achieved national fame when, between the ages of 88 and 90, she walked across the continental United States to advocate for campaign finance reform. Granny D walked over 3200 miles, starting on January 1, 1999 in California and ending in Washington, DC on February 29, 2000. She touched tens of thousands of people — calling on the public and Congress to press for legislation that would curb private and corporate money in elections and to expand public financing of elections.

1993 – Death of Thurgood Marshall, civil rights advocate and Supreme Court Justice
As legal counsel for the NAACP, he argued 32 cases, before the U.S. Supreme Court, prevailing in 29 of them — most of them civil rights related. One of them was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (347 U.S. 483, 1954), which invalidated state-enforced racial segregation in the public schools.

January 25

2012 – Petaluma, CA City Council passes a resolution calling for a reversal of the Citizens United decision
Concerned democracy activists across the nation worked on such actions following the 2011 Citizens United decision. The lack of real democracy, however, predates Citizens United by more than a century. Modifying or even reversing the Supreme Court decision would not return the country to a democratic nirvana, because that reality did not exist. Creating real democracy will begin with overturning the doctrines of corporate personhood and money as speech that have been in force far longer than Citizens United.

January 26

1907 – Tillman Act enacted, corporate contributions illegal
This was the first legislation passed by Congress in the United States prohibiting monetary contribution to national political campaigns by corporations.

2016 – Washington Ballot Measure Approved for November Election
The Secretary of State’s Office for Washington State Elections certified Initiative 735 for the ballot today. I-735 will ask Washington voters to decide this November whether to join sixteen other states in calling for their state legislature and Congress to propose an amendment that makes clear that constitutional rights belong to human beings only and that money is not protected speech, effectively overturning the controversial decision in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission.

“We are inspired by the tremendous efforts by our Washington volunteers in the WAmend Coalition and the people of Washington State who made this ballot measure a reality! This represents an overwhelming rejection of the Supreme Court’s expansion of corporate power,” said Kaitlin Sopoci-Belknap, National Director of Move to Amend. “Voters in Washington have the opportunity to join a growing movement of people from all walks of life rejecting the overwhelming influence of big corporations in politics, and demanding a genuine democracy that is accountable to We the People, not wealthy interests.”
Source: http://movetoamend.org/washington-ballot-measure-approved-november-election

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: January 13 – 19

January 13

2007 – The article, “Who Rules America,” by Professor James Petras
“Within the financial ruling class…political leaders come from the public and private equity banks, namely Wall Street – especially Goldman Sachs, Blackstone, the Carlyle Group and others. They organize and fund both major parties and their electoral campaigns. They pressure, negotiate and draw up the most comprehensive and favorable legislation on global strategies and sectoral policies…They pressure the government to “bailout” bankrupt and failed speculative firms and to balance the budget by lowering social expenditures instead of raising taxes on speculative “windfall” profits…These private equity banks are involved in every sector of the economy, in every region of the world economy and increasingly speculate in the conglomerates which are acquired. Much of the investment funds now in the hands of the US investment banks, hedge funds and other sectors of the financial ruling class originated in the profits extracted from workers in the manufacturing and service sector.”
Source: http://www.globalresearch.ca/who-rules-america/4441

January 14

1914 – Death in this month of Ambrose Bierce, U.S. editorialist, journalist and writer
“Corporation: An ingenious device for obtaining individual profit without individual responsibility.”

1938 – Birth of Dorothy Zellner – civil rights activist, feminist
Zellner was co-editor of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee’s newsletter, the Student Voice. “Zellner was arrested at a CORE demonstration in Miami in 1960 and participated in sit-ins in New Orleans before joining Julian Bond as co-editor of the Student Voice, which built community among SNCC’s widely dispersed field workers. She also became SNCC’s media relations person, helping generate support for the organization and bring it to national attention. She handled fundraising and helped screen volunteers for Freedom Summer. Zellner worked as a nurse for several years before joining the Center for Constitutional Rights in 1984. In 1998, she became director of publications and development for the Queens College School of Law. She lectures and writes frequently about the civil rights movement and co-edited Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. “
https://jwa.org/people/zellner-dorothy

2019 – Article, “Supreme Court, in blockbuster Martinez ruling, shields oil and gas drillers from stricter public health rules”
“The justices stated they would be ‘limited and highly deferential’ in their review of an agency’s rule-making process, and added that the commission was already working with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. The justices also wrote that by law, the commission cannot condition each new drilling permit on its impacts to public health and the environment because the commission is ‘required to foster the development of oil and gas resources, protecting and enforcing the rights of owners and producers, and in doing so, to prevent and mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts to the extent necessary to protect public health, safety, and welfare, but only after taking into consideration cost-effectiveness and technical feasibility.’”

Supreme Court, in blockbuster Martinez ruling, shields oil and gas drillers from stricter public health rules

January 15

1929 – Birth of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Two MLK quotes:
“When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triples of racism, militarism and economic exploitation are incapable of being conquered.”

“The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people.”
Note: It’s no time to remain silent to injustice, corporate rule, and plutocracy.

Like so much else in society, however, corporations have hijacked part of the legacy of MLK – specifically his memorial in Washington, DC

The Corporate Hijacking of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial

“In the years before his assassination, King re-shifted his focus on economic justice in northern cities as well as the South. He launched the Poor People’s Campaign and put forth an economic and social bill of rights that espoused ‘a national responsibility to provide work for all.’ King advocated for a jobs guarantee, which would require the government to provide jobs to anyone who could not find one and end unemployment. The bill of rights also included ‘the right of every citizen to a minimum income’ and ‘the right to an adequate education.’”
From: “4 Ways Martin Luther King Was More Radical Than You Thought” http://thinkprogress.org/politics/2014/01/20/3177871/martin-luther-king-radicalism/

1958 – First of two days of arguments of NAACP v. Alabama before US Supreme Court – individual members have standing to protect individual rights, “corporate rights” not needed
“One of the most commonly cited examples of the need to protect constitutional rights for non-profits…That case [NAACP v. Alabama 357 U.S. 449 (1958)] centered on the NAACP’s refusal to comply with a state order to turn over its list of members residing in the state of Alabama. It’s a bit mystifying that so many cite this case as a reason to protect institutional rights when the majority ruling opens with this statement:

“’We think that petitioner argues more appropriately the rights of its members, and that its nexus with them is sufficient to permit that it act as their representative before this Court. In so concluding, we reject respondent’s argument that the Association lacks standing to assert here constitutional rights pertaining to the members, who are not, of course, parties to the litigation.’

It’s not an institutional right — or corporate right — but the rights of the individual members that gives standing to the institution in this case. And to be absolutely sure everyone got the point, they went further:

“’We hold that the immunity from state scrutiny of petitioner’s membership lists is here so related to the right of petitioner’s members to pursue their lawful private interests privately and to associate freely with others in doing so as to come within the protection of the Fourteenth Amendment.’

“In other words, the organization was properly asserting the constitutional rights of its individual members, because disclosure of the lists would violate those members’ individual rights. This was not an institutional right being asserted, but an individual right being exercised by an institution with a legitimate interest in so doing.”
https://movetoamend.org/why-non-profits-do-not-have-deserve-or-need-constitutional-rights

1976 – Birth of Sally Kempton, student and teacher of spiritual awareness and author
“It’s hard to defeat an enemy who has outposts in your head.”

January 16

2013 – Published article, “How The Gun Industry Funnels Tens Of Millions Of Dollars To The NRA”
“Since 2005, the gun industry and its corporate allies have given between $20 million and $52.6 million to it through the NRA Ring of Freedom sponsor program. Donors include firearm companies like Midway USA, Springfield Armory Inc, Pierce Bullet Seal Target Systems, and Beretta USA Corporation. Other supporters from the gun industry include Cabala’s, Sturm Rugar & Co, and Smith & Wesson.”
https://www.businessinsider.com/gun-industry-funds-nra-2013-1

January 17

1706 – Birth of Benjamin Franklin – claims bankers primary reason for Revolution
“The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction. The inability of the colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George III and the international bankers was the prime reason for the revolutionary war.”

1893 – Death of former President Rutherford B. Hayes
Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel Tilden in 1877. Twenty electoral votes were “unresolved.” The (s)election of Hayes as President was determined by a special commission, controlled by the CEO of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and made up of Supreme Court justices and members of Congress. A deal was struck, The Compromise of 1877, that Hayes would receive the 20 electoral votes if he agreed to pull federal troops from the South, what ended Reconstruction and the launch of Jim Crow racist laws. Those same troops were shifted to put down the first national labor strike in 1877, resulting in the death of over 100 strikers.

1961 – Farewell address of President Dwight D. Eisenhower — indicts the “military industrial complex”
“This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence — economic, political, even spiritual — is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet, we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society.

“In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.”

2019 – Report: “Populist leaders face mounting resistance, say global rights experts”
“From Europe to Yemen and Myanmar to the US, authoritarian and populist leaders face an increasingly powerful human rights pushback, according to an influential annual survey of global rights.

“Despite mounting pessimism around rights abuses and attacks on democracy by populists on both the far left and far right, the “big news” of the past year was the growing trend to confront abuses by “headline-grabbing autocrats”, said Human Rights Watch.

“The US-based group cited growing opposition in Europe and the US, including from voters and institutions, to the rhetoric and policies of figures as diverse as Donald Trump and Hungary’s Viktor Orbán.”
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/jan/17/populist-leaders-face-mounting-resistance-says-global-human-rights-watch-experts

January 18

2012 – American Sustainable Business Council report: “Small Businesses Reject Role of Money in Politics; View Citizens United Decision as Bad for Business
“Small business owners view the Citizens United decision as bad for small business: 66% of those surveyed said the two-year-old ruling that gives corporations unlimited spending power in elections is bad for small businesses. Only 9% said it was good for small business.”

The Council spans a growing network of business associations across the United States, which in turn represents over 200,000 businesses and 325,000 business executives, owners, investors, and others.
Source: http://asbcouncil.org/sites/default/files/files/poll_results_money_in_politics.pdf

January 19

1980 – Death William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, challenger of corporate constitutional rights
Douglas provided several profound dissenting opinions challenging corporate constitutional rights. One example: In Wheeling Steel Corp. v. Glander (337 U.S. 562, 1949), he asserted, “If they [the people] want corporations to be treated as humans are treated, if they want to grant corporations this large degree of emancipation from state regulation, they should say so. The Constitution provides a method by which they may do so. We should not do it for them through the guise of interpretation.”

2000 – Role of Foundations in Social Change — “Letter to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation” by Richard L. Grossman & Ward Morehouse of POCLAD
“Foundation money in general perpetuates the idea that dominion over corporate decisions is not the public’s business, indeed, is well beyond the public’s constitutional authority. With few exceptions, the foundations which demonstrate interest in giant corporations:
1. give money in small dollars to many small citizen groups resisting specific corporate assaults…one at a time, ad infinitum;
2. give larger dollops to trustworthy cultural icons to promote voluntary corporate codes of conduct and encourage ‘cooperation’ between powerful artificial corporate persons and weak natural persons; and
3. give gobs to stagnant think tanks and law professors to explore corporate internal decision-making, efficiency, and transparency, without even lip service to this nation’s ideal that in a democracy, it is civil society’s responsibility to define all institutions.”
Source: Defying Corporations, Defining Democracy by Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy, 2001, p. 228

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: January 6 – 12

January 6

1919 – Death of former US President Theodore Roosevelt, critic of corporate political contributions
In 1905, he stated: “All contributions by corporations to any political committee or for any political purpose should be forbidden by law; directors should not be permitted to use stockholders’ money for such purposes; and, moreover, a prohibition of this kind would be, as far as it went, an effective method of stopping the evils aimed at in corrupt practices acts. Not only should both the National and the several State Legislatures forbid any officer of a corporation from using the money of the corporation in or about any election, but they should also forbid such use of money in connection with any legislation save by the employment of counsel in public manner for distinctly legal services.”

January 7

1782 – Bank of North America opens
This was the first private commercial bank of the United States, chartered under the Articles of Confederation. Congress voted to transfer their authority to issue money to the Bank when it approved its charter. Why did Congress willingly give up their money power? The public argument was that the business of finance could not be competently conducted by a public body (Congress) — only by a small number of private financiers. The first head of the Bank was Robert Morris, then the richest merchant in America.

1889 – U.S. Supreme Court Justices rule for the first time that a corporation is a “person” for both due process and equal protection
The case was Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad v. Beckwith, [129 U.S. 2]. While many believe that the High Court made the exact same ruling three years earlier in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific R. Co. [118 U.S. 394], the Justices did not technically do so, but simply agreed with an incorrect summary of the case prepared by the court reporter. The Justices in the Beckwith case were clear that corporations should be granted certain “personhood” rights.

1919 – US Suffragetts organize “Watchfire for Freedom” for 19th Amendment – burn speeches of President Wilson
“The National Woman’s Party devised a new tactic to pressure for the adoption of a suffrage amendment to the Constitution. Members would gather with copies of the president’s speeches on issues relating to democracy and burn them in urns outside public buildings, including the White House. With a banner implying that the resident was a hypocrite, women outside the White House burned a speech Wilson had given on his grand tour of Europe.”
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/connections/women-protest/history4.html

January 8

1908 – U.S. Supreme Court grants 4th Amendment rights to corporations
Corporations are granted Bill of Rights protections against “search and seizure” by the U.S. Supreme Court in Consolidated Rendering Co. v. Vermont, 207 U.S. 541. The corporation’s agents asserted and were granted a Constitutional right to privacy.

1870 – Suffragist Lucy Stone’s newspaper The Woman’s Journal published its first issue
“American weekly suffragist periodical, first published on January 8, 1870, by Lucy Stone and her husband, Henry Blackwell, to address a broad segment of middle-class female society interested in women’s rights. As an official publication of the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), it published the views of the AWSA. Because the periodical was ‘devoted to the interests of Woman—to her educational, industrial, legal and political Equality, and especially to her right of Suffrage,’ it printed speeches, debates, and convention notes that pertained to suffrage for women.”
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Womans-Journal

1935 – Birth of Lewis Lapham, U.S. writer – on power elite
“The shaping of the will of Congress and the choosing of the American president has become a privilege reserved to the country’s equestrian classes, a.k.a. the 20% of the population that holds 93% of the wealth, the happy few who run the corporations and the banks, own and operate the news and entertainment media, compose the laws and govern the universities, control the philanthropic foundations, the policy institutes, the casinos, and the sports arenas.”

2019 – “It’s Time to Bring Back the Corporate Death Penalty,” by Thom Hartmann
“The corporate death penalty, widespread in the 19th century, is a political and economic Darwinian process that weeds bad actors out of the business ecosystem to make room for good players.

“The process of revoking corporate charters goes back to the very first years of the United States. After all, the only reasons states allow (“charter”) corporations (normal business corporations can only be chartered by a state, not the federal government) is to serve the public interest
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2019/01/08/its-time-bring-back-corporate-death-penalty

January 9

1893 – US Supreme Court decision grants corporations Bill of Rights protections with the application of the 5th Amendment to a non-human corporate entity
The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Nobel v. Union River Logging [147 U.S. 165], granting to corporations for the first time inalienable rights contained in the Bill of Rights. The 5th Amendment says: “…nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”

2003 – Corporate pollution, low wages and corporate welfare part of the same source
“It would not have been enough to see poor funding for girls’ athletics as one problem, unequal wages for women as a separate problem, and harassment in the workplace as still a different problem. These battles became one when their common source in sex discrimination was recognized. Yet today we chase after corporate pollution as one problem, low wages as another problem, and corporate welfare as still a third problem.” – Marjorie Kelly in “The Divine Right of Capital: Dethroning the Corporate Aristocracy.” The paperback version was first published on this date

Corporate rule is the source.

2018 – Article, “Amazon Is Thriving Thanks to Taxpayer Dollars”
“Amazon ranks nineteenth among Ohio businesses in number of employees on food stamps, behind Walmart, McDonald’s, and Kroger. But Amazon is only the fifty-third-largest employer in Ohio, suggesting a higher rate of employees on food stamps than its counterparts. More important, Amazon has obtained at least $123 million in state tax incentives to place warehouse and data center locations in Ohio. This reflects a perverse form of double-dipping: Amazon gets a bounty to create jobs in Ohio, and then a good chunk of the jobs are so low-paying that workers have to seek federal assistance, providing a second subsidy for the e-commerce giant.”
https://newrepublic.com/article/146540/amazon-thriving-thanks-taxpayer-dollars

January 10

1843 – Birth of Lord Acton, English historian, politician, and writer
“The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought, sooner or later, is the people versus the banks.“

1997 – A letter from President Bill Clinton to Mayor of Toledo, Ohio on limits of Presidential power over corporate decisions is referenced in the following:
“The mayor had asked the president for help in getting the Chrysler Corporation to build a new Jeep factory within Toledo city limits to replace the ancient one which Chrysler Corporation was closing.

“The President of the United States, leader of the most powerful nation the world has ever known, elected head of a government always eager to celebrate the uniqueness of its democracy to the point of forcing it upon other nations, wrote:
‘As I am sure you know, my Administration cannot endorse any potential location for the new production site. My Intergovernmental Affairs staff will be happy to work with you once the Chrysler Board of Directors has made its decision.’

“Our president may not have a clue, but We the People did not grant away our sovereignty when we made Chrysler into a corporation. When we gave the Chrysler Corporation authority to manufacture automobiles, we made the people of Toledo not its subjects, nor Chrysler Corporation their supreme authority.”
From “Corporations, Accountability, and Responsibility,” by Richard Grossman in Defying Corporations, Defining Democracy, p. 141

January 11

1755 – Birth of Alexander Hamilton, U.S. “founding father,” first U.S. Treasury Secretary, anti-democrat
Hamilton labeled We the People as the “mob at the gate.” He also said, “Our real disease which is Democracy.” Hamilton was the major proponent of providing a 20-year federal charter to the mis-named First National Bank of the United States, the U.S.’ first private central bank. Seventy-five percent of the bank’s stock was foreign-owned. Federal charters, or licenses, were very unusual at the time, as most corporate charters were issued by the states, which were closer to We the People.

1885 — Birth of Alice Paul – Feminist, Suffragist, and Political Strategist
“Alice Paul was the architect of some of the most outstanding political achievements on behalf of women in the 20th century. Born on January 11, 1885 to Quaker parents in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, Alice Paul dedicated her life to the single cause of securing equal rights for all women.

“Few individuals have had as much impact on American history as has Alice Paul. Her life symbolizes the long struggle for justice in the United States and around the world. Her vision was the ordinary notion that women and men should be equal partners in society.”

Who Was Alice Paul

1943 – Birth of Jim Hightower, syndicated columnist, progressive political activist, and author
“The corporations don’t have to lobby the government anymore. They are now the government.”

January 12

1729 – Birth of Edmund Burke, Irish Member of Parliament and author – attributed quote
“All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent.”

We need to speak out and act up for democracy and human rights in all its forms and to end corporate rule and plutocracy.

 

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: December 30 – January 5

December 30

2011 – Pittsburgh City Council passes resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood
The resolution also called for returning elections to the American people.

December 31

1600 – Founding of the East India Trading Company
The corporation used the English government to enable it to monopolize the tea market in the American colonies. Often cited as the final spark of the Revolutionary War, the Boston Tea Party was the direct result of colonial opposition to this corporate monopoly.

1945 – Birth of Harvey Wasserman – exposes fraudulent electronic voting machines
Wasserman is an anti-nuclear and safe energy activist, journalist and senior editor of the Columbus Free Press. He has co-authored numerous articles with Bob Fitrakis on election fraud of elections since 2000, with special emphasis on the 2000 and 2004 election results in Ohio.

Wasserman and Fitrakis have written.
“Source codes remain “proprietary,” so the public has no control over the private machines on which our allegedly democratic elections are conducted. There is no usable paper trail, transparency or accountability.
“We are concerned that all voters get fair access to the polls, and all votes are fairly counted, no matter who the candidate. We have no doubt the Democratic Party would be just as willing to flip elections from Republicans as vice versa, and that both have, can and will do the same to the Green Party and other challengers.
“So we support universal hand-counted paper ballots, automatic universal voter registration, a four-day national holiday for voting, major restrictions on campaign spending and a wide range of additional reforms meant to guarantee some kind of democracy in the United States.”
http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/31511-why-hillary-can-t-win

January 1

1808 – Congress abolishes African slave trade
While no new slaves were imported to the U.S., existing slaves remained, and of course black children continued to be born into slavery. Slavery would not end in the U.S. for all except prisoners until the abolitionist movement and the Civil War terminated the “peculiar institution” with the adoption of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.

1817 – Second National Bank of the U.S. opens
The Second National Bank (like the First National Bank before it) was chartered (or licensed) by Congress, even though most corporations at the time were chartered by the states. Charters defined what corporations could and could not do. As such, they were democratic tools used by the public to control or define corporations.

While called “national,” the Bank was not public but actually a commercial/corporate bank with the power to issue money directly (just like the First National Bank). The Bank issued initially 20 times more money than it had in reserve as loans. This led to financial speculation and large corporate profits. A year later, it stopped issuing loans, resulting in a severe contraction of the money supply, which led to massive bankruptcies, and the Panic of 1819. President Andrew Jackson believed the bank was a political and economic threat to the nation. He vetoed a bill in 1832 renewing the bank’s charter.

1844 – Supreme Court decision allows corporate cases to be heard in federal court
The court declared that corporations are citizens of the chartering state, and added that the Constitution’s diversity clause (Article. III Section. 2) allows corporate cases to be heard in federal court. This reduced local and state control of corporate actions.
Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston R. Co. v. Letson, 43 U.S. (2 How.) 497

Just another example of judicial activism

January 2

1882 – Incorporation of the Standard Oil Trust
John D. Rockefeller, head of the Standard Oil Corporation, and his associates combined their separate but related companies under a single group of “trustees” to form the nation’s first “trust,” a single organization which consolidated economic power, amassed enormous political leverage and granted Rockefeller considerable personal control as the trustee who owned the most shares. The trust model was repeated in other industries. It led to passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890.

1920 – Second round of Palmer Raids begins
The Palmer Raids, named after Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, were a series of raids and arrests at the end of World War I directed at radical leftists suspected of being communists, communist sympathizers or of committing violence by the U.S. Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. The raids, dubbed the first “Red Scare,” took place just following the creation of the Soviet Union. The first raids occurred in 1919. The second series, launched on this date, was much larger. Overseen by a young J. Edgar Hoover, over 3000 people in more than 30 cities were arrested without search warrants. Many of those were held in overcrowded and unsanitary holding facilities with “clear cases of brutality,” as Hoover later admitted.

January 3

1793 – Birth of Lucretia Mott, Quaker feminist and abolitionist
Mott co-organized the first national Women’s Right Convention in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. The gathering was advertised as “a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman.”

1883 – Birth of Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955
“Democracy means government by discussion, but it is only effective if you can stop people talking.”
Democracy requires listening…and hearing…not just talking. That’s real discussion.

January 4

1774 – Birth of William M. Richardson, New Hampshire Supreme Court Chief Justice, who opposed Dartmouth College’s claim to Constitutional protection under the Contracts Clause
Following the American Revolution, democratic legislators in New Hampshire sought to convert private Dartmouth College into Dartmouth University, and thereby make it publicly accountable. The College trustees objected, claiming their charter with the King of England was actually a contract and protected by the Constitution’s Contracts Clause (“No State shall…pass any…Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts….”). The state legislature claimed it was not valid since the King no longer ruled and that legislators had the power to issue and revoke charters.

Writing for the majority in defense of the state legislature, Richardson stated it would not serve the public interest, “…to place the great public institutions, in which all the young men, destined for the liberal professions, are to be educated, within the absolute control of a few individuals, and out of the control of the sovereign power – not consistent with sound policy, because it is a matter of too great moment, too intimately connected with the public welfare and prosperity, to be thus entrusted in the hands of a few. The education of the rising generation is a matter of the highest public concern, and is worthy of the best attention of every legislature…We are therefore clearly of opinion, that the charter of Dartmouth College, is not a contract, within the meaning of this clause in the Constitution of the United States).”

The College appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of the College in Dartmouth College v. Woodward in 1819 — the first time corporations are granted constitutional protections.

January 5

1855 – Birth of King Camp Gillette, author of “The Human Drift,” which advocated for one corporation to run all industry
In “The Human Drift,” Gillette presents a futuristic society where all industry should be taken over by a single corporation owned by the public, and where everyone in the US should live in a giant city called Metropolis powered by Niagara Falls. A later book, World Corporation (1910), presented a specific plan for this vision. He offered Theodore Roosevelt the presidency of the company, with a salary of one million dollars.

2012 – The article, “Granting Corporations Bill of Rights Protections Is Not ‘Pro-business'” is posted on the American Independent Business Alliance website
“Two of the three broad-based national business organizations submitting amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs in Citizens United v FEC at the U.S. Supreme Court argued against allowing corporations to engage in direct electioneering.

“The American Independent Business Alliance (AMIBA) says such a change would badly harm the majority of America’s independent businesses. AMIBA’s brief to the U.S. Supreme Court…argued that even with present limitations on corporate political power, large corporations have converted their economic power into political favors that consistently harm small businesses. The tendency of powerful corporations to lobby for lawmakers to erect or sustain barriers to entry is another problem acknowledged by conservatives and progressives alike. To enlarge corporate political power further, AMIBA’s brief notes, would both harm the political process and undermine genuine market competition.

“The Committee for Economic Development brief argues giving corporations the ability to dominate electoral campaigns would, in reality, harm many companies by subjecting them to an endless series of shakedowns by politicians. ‘Each corporation,’ states the brief, ‘would be helpless to get out of the political game, fearful of losing out in the economic marketplace to competitors that were willing to play ball.'”
Source: http://www.amiba.net/granting-corporations-bill-of-rights-protections-is-not-pro-business/

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: December 23 – 29

December 23

1913 – Congress passes Federal Reserve Act – Creating Federal Reserve System
The Act created a largely corporate controlled national banking and currency system, passed in the House by 298-60 and in the Senate by 43-25 and signed by President Wilson on this day. It was a major coup for banking corporations through the establishment of a private central bank authorized to “monetize” government debt (i.e. to print their own money and exchange it for government securities or I.O.U.’s). The central banking system was composed of 12 regional private/corporate banks owned by participating commercial banks. All national banks were required to join the system. Banking corporations now controlled the issuance and distribution of our national currency. By controlling our national money faucet, they could create inflation and deflation. This corporate monopolization of our currency allowed for public regulation, but not control. It was now banking corporations, not the U.S. government, that controlled the national currency. Congress handed its Constitutional power under Article 1, Section 8 to create our money over to private banking corporations. It’s the ultimate form of “privatization” – more accurately “corporatization” – of what was meant to be, and should be a public function or service.

December 24

1962 – Birth of David Cobb, former Outreach Director of Move to Amend and Principal of the Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD)
Cobb debated James Bopp in September, 2014 at Indiana University in Bloomington, IN on “Citizens Divided: Corporate Money, Speech, and Politics.” Bopp is General Counsel for the James Madison Center for Free Speech and was lead attorney for Citizens United, the group that argued their corporate 1st Amendment “speech rights were violated when prevented from airing a political program just prior to the election.”
The “debate” turned out to be one-sided – with Cobb presenting a much stronger case for why corporations should not be granted “personhood” rights and money should not be equated with “free speech” than Bopp arguing the reverse.
Watch the debate at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijSsZdCatTM

2013 – Wall Street insider discloses mass power of financial sector
From “Bloomberg View” article on Bart Chilton, Outspoken Former Member of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission
“Chilton leaves behind a sobering message: As we long suspected, Wall Street continues to use every trick in its playbook to do whatever it can to eviscerate numerous post-financial-crisis rules. The arsenal includes high-powered lobbyists who outnumber lawmakers 10-to-1; $1,000-an-hour letter-writing lawyers who gain strength from negotiating over arcana; and the occasional hoodwinking of a president whose knowledge of the ways of finance are close to nil.
In a recent interview, Chilton said that, despite years of hard work by financial regulators to put the 2010 Dodd-Frank law into force (witness the 882 pages required to explain a 71-page Volcker Rule), their efforts will be futile in the face of Wall Street’s money and power. ‘The lesson for me is: The financial sector is so powerful that they will roll things back over time,’ Chilton says. ‘The Wall Street firms have tremendous influence, and they can impact policy to a greater degree than any one regulator or a small group of regulators can.'”http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-12-24/angry-bart-takes-his-parting-shot.html Bart’s views were confirmed in a most spectacular fashion on December 16 when President Obama signed the annual budget bill containing a “rider” permitting banking corporations to shift risky derivatives under financial protection of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) if and/or when they implode.

December 25

2015 – Christmas – Birth of Jesus, who attacked “money changers”
The celebrated birthday of Jesus Christ in the Christian calendar. In his only public act of violence, Jesus drove the “money changers” with a whip of chords out of the sacred Temple in Jerusalem, which he called “my Father’s house.”

Modern-day money changers are banking corporations – the most economically and politically dominant of all corporations. They have captured our most sacred democratic “house” – our government. They, too, along with all other corporations, need to be driven out of our government.

December 26

2019 – Boxing Day – corporate personhood, money equals free speech and U.S. Constitution “boxes” activists into small spaces of what is doable
“Boxing Day” is an annual holiday celebrated in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations. Traditionally, it was when servants or employees would receive gifts from their bosses or employers in “Christmas boxes.”

Many Supreme Court decisions anointing corporations as legal “persons” and money as “free speech,” as well as many limitations of the U.S. Constitution (i.e. no direct election of President, no national initiative provision, no definition of economic rights, among many others) have been anything but gifts to individuals striving for real democracy. Rather, they have “boxed” activists into ever-smaller spaces concerning the kind of laws and regulations can be passed. Unable to limit the amount of money donated by individuals and corporate entities in elections and incapable of preventing corporations from asserting Bill of Rights protections, the super wealthy and corporations have captured ever greater portions of public policy and public space, therefore, shrinking these public arenas for the vast majority of citizens.

For background on limitations of and possibilities for a more democratic Constitution, see http://poclad.org/BWA/2007/BWA_2007_DEC.html and
http://poclad.org/BWA/2007/BWA_2007_MAR.html#3

December 27

1907 – Death of John Chandler Bancroft Davis – whose unilateral action yielded first Supreme Court corporate “personhood” decision
Davis played a historical role in the corporate personhood debate. As the court reporter in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (118 U.S. 394, 1886), his responsibility was to prepare ‘a summary-of-the-case commentary.’ He wrote in the headnote to the decision that Chief Justice Morrison Waite began his oral argument of the court’s opinion by stating, ‘The court does not wish to hear argument on the question whether the provision in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws, applies to these corporations. We are all of the opinion that it does.”

Davis’ published reports and notes from 1885-1886 contained his views on the Santa Clara case: ‘The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

Thom Hartman and other journalists and authors have since charged Davis with a conflict of interest in his role in the Supreme Court ruling as he had previously been President of the Newburgh and New York Railway.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bancroft_Davis

2015 – Published article, “The Illusion of Freedom” by Chris Hedges in TruthDig
“The seizure of political and economic power by corporations is unassailable. Who funds and manages our elections? Who writes our legislation and laws? Who determines our defense policies and vast military expenditures? Who is in charge of the Department of the Interior? The Department of Homeland Security? Our intelligence agencies? The Department of Agriculture? The Food and Drug Administration? The Department of Labor? The Federal Reserve? The mass media? Our systems of entertainment? Our prisons and schools? Who determines our trade and environmental policies? Who imposes austerity on the public while enabling the looting of the U.S. Treasury and the tax boycott by Wall Street? Who criminalizes dissent?…

“This truth, emotionally difficult to accept, violates our conception of ourselves as a free, democratic people. It shatters our vision of ourselves as a nation embodying superior virtues and endowed with the responsibility to serve as a beacon of light to the world. It takes from us the “right” to impose our fictitious virtues on others by violence. It forces us into a new political radicalism. This truth reveals, incontrovertibly, that if real change is to be achieved, if our voices are to be heard, corporate systems of power have to be destroyed. This realization engenders an existential and political crisis. The inability to confront this crisis, to accept this truth, leaves us appealing to centers of power that will never respond and ensures we are crippled by self-delusion.”
http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/the_illusion_of_freedom_20151227

December 28

1856 – Birth of Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States of America – on the need for corporations and government to work together
“If monopoly persists, monopoly will always sit at the helm of government. I do not expect monopoly to restrain itself. If there are men in this country big enough to own the government of the United States, they are going to own it.”

1947 – Birth of Spencer Bachus, former Republican Chair of the US House Financial Services Committee – who said regulators exist to serve the banks
“In Washington, the view is that the banks are to be regulated and my view is that Washington and the regulators are there to serve the banks.”

December 29

1890 – Massacre at Wounded Knee
Lakota Chief Big Foot and between 150-350 women, children and warriors are massacred at Wounded Knee. Twenty Congressional Medals of Honor were awarded to US Soldiers who participated in the massacre. Numerous efforts have been attempted to have these medals rescinded as this massacre can arguably be seen as a war crime. But every attempt has failed.

2014 – Article published: Big money breaks out: Top 100 donors give almost as much as 4.75 million small donors combined
“The 100 biggest campaign donors gave $323 million in 2014 — almost as much as the $356 million given by the estimated 4.75 million people who gave $200 or less,” a POLITICO analysis of campaign finance filings found.

‘When 100 big donors give as much almost 5 million small donors, with whom do we expect candidates to spend their time, and whose interests do we think they will represent?’, the author asked. ‘That’s not democracy. That’s oligarchy.’”
Read more: http://www.politico.com/story/2014/12/top-political-donors-113833#ixzz3ta7ebjxE

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: December 16 – 22

December 16

1773 – Colonists stage Boston Tea Party – an Anti-Corporate Revolt
“The real Boston Tea Party was a protest against huge corporate tax cuts for the British East India Company, the largest trans-national corporation then in existence. This corporate tax cut threatened to decimate small Colonial businesses by helping the BEIC pull a Wal-Mart against small entrepreneurial tea shops, and individuals began a revolt that kicked-off a series of events that ended in the creation of The United States of America….

“A year and a half later, the colonists would again state their defiance of the East India Company and Great Britain by taking on British troops in an armed conflict at Lexington and Concord (the “shots heard ’round the world”) on April 19, 1775.

“That war-finally triggered by a transnational corporation and its government patrons trying to deny American colonists a fair and competitive local marketplace-would end with independence for the colonies.”
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2009/04/15/real-boston-tea-party-was-anti-corporate-revolt

December 17

1964 – Death of Alexander Meiklejohn, Philosopher and Educator – who wrote on how the 1st Amendment and human freedom are threatened by dominant business enterprises
“The 1st Amendment “does not intend to guarantee men freedom to say what some private interest pays them to say for its own advantage. It intends only to make men free to say what, as citizens, they think, what they believe, about the general welfare…

“[I]nsofar as a society is dominated by the attitudes of competitive business enterprise, freedom in its proper American meaning cannot be known, and hence, cannot be taught. That is the basic reason why the schools and colleges, which are, presumably, commissioned to study and promote the ways of freedom, are so weak, so confused, so ineffectual.”

December 18

1882 – Death of Henry James, Sr. – on democracy
“Democracy is not so much a new form of political life as a dissolution and disorganization of the old forms. It is simply a resolution of government into the hands of the people…”

December 19

2009 – Publication this month of article, “People as Property: Criminalizing Color, Dissent and Impoverishment through the Prison-Industrial Complex” by Karen Coulter
“Slavery and involuntary servitude were supposedly abolished by the 13th amendment to the Constitution. However, the amendment reads that slavery and involuntary servitude shall no longer exist in the U.S. ‘except as punishment for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted’…Then there are the investors in the prison industry: American Express Corporation invested millions in private prison construction in Oklahoma; General Electric Corporation financed prison construction in Tennessee; Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Smith Barney, and other Wall Street investment firms made big profits by underwriting prison construction with the sale of tax-exempt bonds, a 2.3 billion dollar industry as of 1997. Some of the largest Wall Street investment corporations started buying bonds and securities from private prison corporations in the ’90’s and reselling them for profit to individual investors, mutual funds and others, literally speculating in the growth of locking up more and more people. The rise of the prison industrial complex can be accurately seen as part of a profound transformation that restructured U.S. economic development and its forms of social control. Philip Wood identifies corporate colonization of decision-making structures as a key element of the changes in U.S. public policy supporting the expansion and privatization of the prison industry.”

Karen Coulter is a principal of the Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD) http://www.poclad.org/BWA/2009/BWA_2009_DEC.html

December 20

1902 – Birth of Sidney Hook, American philosopher – democracy is like love
“Democracy is like love in this: it cannot be brought to life by others in command.”

December 21

1885 – Corporate lawyers claim railroad corporation’s 14th Amendment rights violated
In San Mateo v. Southern Pacific R. Co., 13 F. 722 (C.C.D. Cal. 1882), corporate lawyers attacked a provision of the California Constitution that assessed higher property taxes against railroad corporations than against non-corporate properties. The attorneys charged that the state violated the railroad’s “rights” under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The parties settled the case before the Supreme Court announced a decision; however, the argument would be used one year later in what would become the very first time corporations were granted 14th Amendment “rights” by the Supreme Court in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 US 394.

December 22

1970 – Birth of Senator Ted Cruz (R., Texas) – politicians are open to the highest bidder
“Lobbyists and career politicians today make up what I call the Washington Cartel. … [They] on a daily basis are conspiring against the American people. … [C]areer politicians’ ears and wallets are open to the highest bidder.”

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: December 9 – 15

December 9

1731 – Birth of Edward Thurlow, Lord Chancellor, Great Britain – corporations do as they like
“Corporations have neither bodies to be punished, nor souls to be condemned; they therefore do as they like.”

2002 – First local government in US adopts binding law to eliminate corporate claims to civil and constitutional privileges
The elected municipal officials of Porter Township in Clarion County PA, a municipality of 1,500 residents near Pittsburgh, adopted a binding law declaring that corporations operating in the Township may not wield constitutional rights, which historically has been used by corporations to override democratic decisions, to prevent the Township from passing laws protecting residents from toxic sewage sludge.

December 10

1890 – Wyoming Territory extends voting rights to women
The Territory became the first to grant women the right to vote. Other western states and territories followed: Colorado 1893, Utah 1896, Idaho 1896, Washington 1910, California 1911, Arizona 1912, Kansas 1912, Oregon 1912, Montana 1914, Nevada 1914, New York 1917, Michigan 1918, Oklahoma 1918, South Dakota 1918.

1923 – The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) first introduced in Congress
Co-written by suffragette Alice Paul, the ERA was designed to guarantee equal rights for women. It was subsequently introduced in every session of Congress through 1970, but almost never reached the floor of Congress for a vote.

It finally passed both houses of Congress in 1972. It was ratified by 35 states, 3 short of the number necessary for adoption. Several groups continue to work for the Amendment.

1948 – Adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The United Nation’s adoption of the UDHR was the first effort to express what many people believe are the rights that all human beings inherently possess. The 30 articles cover economic, social, cultural, civil, and political rights. The UDHR formed the basis for ratification of the 1976 United Nations International Bill of Human Rights.
http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Corporations are not listed as having rights in either of these international agreeements.

2014 – Published article describing first ever lawsuit by an ecosystem filed claiming its right to exist
“For the first time in United States history, an ecosystem — a watershed, to be exact — has filed to defend itself in a lawsuit. The suit aims to reverse a local ban on the injection of fracking wastewater.

“Little Mahoning Watershed in Indiana County, Pennsylvania recently filed a motion to intervene in a lawsuit to defend its own rights to exist and flourish. But watersheds can’t hire lawyers or speak, so how can one defend its rights, and do watersheds even have rights?…

“The ordinance states that any legal action to ‘defend the rights of ecosystems or natural communities…shall bring that action in the name of the ecosystem.’ This gives the Little Mahoning Watershed a kind of ‘personhood’ within Grant Township and gives authority to the township’s attorney to litigate on the watershed’s behalf.”

Rights of Nature Report: Pennsylvania Ecosystem Fights Corporation For Rights In Landmark Fracking Lawsuit

Two years later, a judge granted a motion in favor of the ecosystem, marking “the first time that an ecosystem, arguing for its own rights to exist and to flourish, has prevailed on a motion in court.”

Press Release: Grant Township Wins Key Motions in Fight for Civil and Environmental Rights

December 11

1886 – Colored Farmers National Alliance and Cooperative Union was founded in Houston County, Texas
“The Colored Farmers National Alliance and Cooperative Union, was a Black political party, union and cooperative development agency that started in Texas, and spread throughout the South. It was so controversial that their leader was actually a white man because no Black man could have led it without being killed. Most of the Black organizers were underground, organizing secretly. They lasted less than 10 years but it was the largest Black organization until the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s.”

1922 – Corporations first granted 5th Amendment Bill of Rights protections by US Supreme Court
Corporations granted 5th Amendment “takings clause” rights in Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon (260 U.S. 393).
From the Move to Amend film “Legalize Democracy” on the decision: “If you pass a regulation that impacts a corporation’s ability to make a profit that is deemed a taking, they can sue for the right to future profits lost. This creates a chilling effect. Local and state governments become much more hesitant to pass laws in the public interest for fear that corporations can claim loss of potential profits that cities and states will be on the hook to pay.”

Corporations have used the takings clause ever since to oppose and thwart environmental laws. Takings compensation on an international scale is the basis for the expanding corporate rule agreements, misnamed “free trade” agreements, like NAFTA and the previously proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

1943 – Birth of Secretary of State John Kerry, who in a 2013 farewell speech to the U.S. Senate, spoke on the alliance of money, special interests and corruption
“The alliance of money and the interests that it represents, the access that it affords to those who have it at the expense of those who don’t, the agenda that it changes or sets by virtue of its power is steadily silencing the voice of the vast majority of Americans … The truth requires that we call the corrosion of money in politics what it is – it is a form of corruption and it muzzles more Americans than it empowers, and it is an imbalance that the world has taught us can only sow the seeds of unrest.”

December 12

1745 – Birth of John Jay, first president of the Continental Congress and first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
“The people who own the country ought to govern it.”
Short, sweet and to the point by one of our nation’s original founding plutocrats.

1791 – First National Bank of the U.S. opens for business in Philadelphia
The federal government issued a 20-year charter to the bank in 1791 (very unusual at the time since most corporate charters, or licenses, were issued by states) to create the first national private bank. This was the first private institution empowered by the U.S. federal government to create paper money — with all the power and profit that goes along with it. The bank’s paper money was accepted for taxes. Eighty percent of its shares were privately owned, among these 75% were foreign owned (mostly by the English and Dutch). The bank was modeled on the Bank of England. Within two months of its creation, it flooded the market with loans and banknotes and then sharply shifted course and called in many of its loans. The result was the first U.S. securities market crash — what became known as the “Panic of 1792” – the first of many panics, recessions and depressions due to the private/corporate control of our money system. On January 24, 1811, the result was Congress voting to not renew the bank’s charter, thus dissolving the bank. During the first 50 years of the U.S., legislatures and courts routinely chose not to renew or revoke corporate charters, which were considered democratic instruments and used to control the actions of corporations.

2000 – Bush v. Gore U.S. Supreme Court ruling
“The individual citizen has no federal constitutional right to vote for electors for the President of the United States.” Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98, 104

December 13

2006 – Federal court overturns law banning corporate purchases of farmland
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit ruled in Jones v. Gale (470 F. 3d 1261, 1268) that Nebraska’s 1982 constitutional amendment prohibiting the purchase of farmland by non-family corporations was unconstitutional under the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution.

2014 – Congressional funding bill shields financial corporations… and for the heck of it raises political contribution limits
Lobbyists for Citigroup Corporation literally wrote the “rider” slipped into the federal spending bill, which protects trillions of dollars of risky financial derivatives from crashing. If and when these casino bets (many on the price of oil continuing to rise) flop, the bettors don’t pay for the losses. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (that would be we taxpayers) does. Call it a “heads they win, tails we lose” scenario. A second “rider” of the spending bill included a meteoric rise in allowable political investments/contributions from individuals to political parties. The degree of the increase wasn’t to keep up with inflation (at, say, 2-3%), but rather 8-fold– from $194,400 to $1.5 million over a two year election cycle.

December 14

1799 – Death of George Washington, first President of the United States of America – need for coercive power
“We probably had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation. Experience has taught us that men will not adopt and carry into execution measures the best calculated for their own good, without the intervention of a coercive power,” said our first president.

According to historian Charles Beard in “An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States,” Washington was probably the richest man in the colonies at the time of the Revolution.

1896 – Covington & L. Turnpike Road Co. v. Sandford (164 U.S. 578) Supreme Court decision – corporations are persons
The Court declared, “it is now settled that corporations are persons, within the meaning of the constitutional provisions forbidding the deprivation of property without due process of law, as well as a denial of the equal protection of the laws.”

December 15

1791 – Ratification of the Bill of Rights
The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution were adopted to protect We the People from excesses of government and to affirm certain inalienable rights of human beings. At the time, however, We the People were only white males who owned property and were over 21 years old. Each state decided how much property must be owned to qualify to vote or run for office.

1986 – Justice William Brennan delivers a prophetic Supreme Court opinion in Federal Election Committee v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life, Inc. (479 U.S. 238) – spending by corporations in elections may make them formidable power
“Direct corporate spending on political activity raised the prospect that resources amassed in the economic marketplace may be used to provide an unfair advantage in the political marketplace… The resources in the treasury of a business corporation…are not an indication of popular support for the corporation’s political ideas. The availability of these resources may make a corporation a formidable political presence, even though the power of the corporation may be no reflection of the power of its ideas.”

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: December 2 – 8

December 2

2015 – First of three programs focusing on African American cooperative economics
The series took place in Austin, TX and was sponsored by Cooperation Texas.
The first program, African-American film shorts, provided “an inside look at thriving worker-owned cooperatives in Black communities with two mini documentaries featuring Cooperative Home Care Associates and Mandela Foods.”

Inequality “has disproportionately affected Black communities. What can be done to address systemic inequality? For generations, African Americans have experimented with cooperative economics in order to survive and thrive.” Cooperatives are means for individuals to take greater control of their communities.
http://cooperationtexas.coop/2015/10/african-american-cooperative-economics-series-2/

2011 – Published article, “Curbing Corporate Power: The Next Step for the Movement to Slow Climate Change” by Carol Polsgrove, The Bloomington Alternative
“Following up on the White House demonstrations to stop the Keystone XL pipeline, Bill McKibben, founder of 350.org, is already hard at work on the next stage of the movement to rein in reliance on fossil fuels.

“On a three-state speaking tour, he is calling for a constitutional amendment to undo the damage the Supreme Court did when it declared corporations as persons and campaign contributions as speech. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce spent more money last election cycle than the Democratic and Republican national committees combined – and 97 percent of that went to climate deniers, he told an audience in Asheville on Nov. 30. The climate change movement has to figure out how to break ‘the corporate power dominating our political lives.’”
http://www.bloomingtonalternative.com/node/10871

December 3

1831 – Birth of Ignatius Donnelly, U.S. Congressman, populist and leader of the Greenback movement
“The newspapers are largely subsidized or muzzled; public opinion silenced; business prostrated; our homes covered with mortgages; labor impoverished; and the land concentrated in the hands of the capitalists…The fruits of toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind; and the possessors of these, in turn, despise the republic and endanger liberty. From the same prolific womb of governmental injustice we breed the two great classes — tramps and millionaires.”

The gap between rich and poor has only widened since Donnelly wrote this — creating not just economic injustices but political injustices.

1888 – President Grover Cleveland says corporations are becoming the people’s masters
“As we view the achievements of aggregated capital, we discover the existence of trusts, combinations, and monopolies, while the citizen is struggling far in the rear or is trampled to death beneath an iron heel. Corporations, which should be the carefully restrained creatures of the law and the servants of the people, are fast becoming the people’s masters.”
1888 State of the Union address, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland%27s_Fourth_State_of_the_Union_Address

1999 – Conclusion of World Trade Organization “Battle in Seattle”
The Third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Seattle from November 30 to December 3, 1999, ends with no agreement. Tens of thousands of environmental, labor, human rights and other protestors shut down major portions of the conference, claiming the WTO favored corporate interests over environmental and social concerns.

While there have been no global trade accords since, bilateral and multilateral so-called “trade agreements” continued to be negotiated. Most of these agreements before and since the WTO have been less about trade than about corporate rule – i.e. expanding the rights of corporations to overturn democratically enacted laws in nations due thanks to the inclusion of Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) provisions that involve corporate-friendly, undemocratic and unaccountable Tribunals that rule on whether or not worker, consumer and environmental laws interfere with maximizing corporate profits.

December 4

1975 – Death of Hannah Arendt, philosopher and political theorist – on hypocrisy
“People are more likely driven to action by the unveiling of hypocrisy than by the prevailing conditions.”

Implication: Pointing out how corporations and extreme wealth do not, as proclaimed by proponents, expand democracy and freedom but rather contract them may be more effective than presenting exposes on the social, economic or political problems caused by corporate rule and the political influence of the extremely wealthy.

1993 – Death of Frank Zappa, US musician, songwriter, composer, record producer, actor, and filmmaker
“The illusion of freedom will continue as long as it’s profitable to continue the illusion. At the point where the illusion becomes too expensive to maintain, they will just take down the scenery, they will pull back the curtains, they will move the tables and chairs out of the way and you will see the brick wall at the back of the theater.”

December 5

1782 – Birth of Martin Van Buren, 8th President of the US – on MONEY POWER
“The MONEY POWER… when firmly established, was destined to become the only kind of an Aristocracy that could exist in our political system.” (Note: Van Buren always capitalized “MONEY POWER” when using the term, which he used to describe banking corporations).

Van Buren was Vice President when President Jackson refused to support the rechartering of the private, misnamed “Second Bank of the United States” – the nation’s central bank at the time (equivalent in some ways to the Federal Reserve Bank of today). The Bank had been originally chartered in 1816 for 20 years. A corporate charter was considered then a democratic tool, a means for the public to define the actions of a corporation to ensure it remained subordinate to meeting public needs (something “We the People” have forgotten today).

2011 – “Grassroots movement fights against corporate money in politics,” Dylan Ratigan Show, MSNBC
Mary Beth Fielder of ‘Move to Amend’ previews the Los Angeles City Council vote on a resolution that calls on Congress to amend the Constitution and clearly establish that only living, breathing humans are afforded Constitutional rights. The resolution passed, and Los Angeles became the first major U.S. city to declare that corporations aren’t people.

December 6

1865 – States ratify 13th Amendment to US Constitution – slavery (for the most part) is abolished
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Slavery is abolished – except for prisoners. This “exception clause” resulted in the widespread “convict lease” system throughout the South following the Civil War. Tens of thousands of African Americans were arbitrarily arrested under “Black Codes” (which criminalized legal activity of African Americans) and then leased to private corporations (i.e. coal mines, lumber camps, brickyards, railroads, quarries, and farm plantations). This system was abolished in the early 20th century.

Court decisions have held that inmates are not protected by the constitutional prohibition against involuntary servitude and may be required to work.

It’s estimated between 600,000 and 1 million inmates work full-time in jails and prisons in the U.S. Federal Prison Industries, also known as UNICOR and FPI, is a wholly owned United States government corporation created in 1934 that uses penal labor from the Federal Bureau of Prisons to produce goods and services for federal government agencies. This includes products made on behalf of military arms manufacturers to be marked up in cost and sold to the United States military.

At least 37 states have enacted laws permitting the use of convict labor by private corporations.

1937 – U.S. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of poll tax
The Court concluded in Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 277 (1937) that a state law requiring a poll tax in order to register to vote was constitutional because “[the] privilege of voting is not derived from the United States, but is conferred by the state and, save as restrained by the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Amendments and other provisions of the Federal Constitution, the state may condition suffrage as it deems appropriate.”

December 7

1941 – Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor, U.S. enters World War II – US corporations conspire with enemy
The Japanese attack on the U.S naval base at Pearl Harbor led the US to declare war on Japan and later Germany and Italy. Despite these nations being deemed “the enemy,” several major U.S. corporations collaborated with them, especially Nazi Germany. Nazi collaborators included IBM, Standard Oil, Kodak, Chase Bank, and Coca Cola.

1928 – Birth of Noam Chomsky, American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, political activist, and social critic
“Concentration of wealth leads naturally to concentration of power, which in turn translates to legislation favoring the interests of the rich and powerful and thereby increasing even further the concentration of power and wealth.”
http://www.alternet.org/election-2016/chomsky-american-dream-dead

December 8

1886 – American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded
Samuel Gompers of the cigar makers union, Peter J. McGuire of the carpenters union and others organized in Columbus, Ohio a coalition of existing national labor unions. It replaced the Knights of Labor, which failed in striking the Union Pacific and Missouri Pacific Railroad corporation in that year. The AFL merged with the more radical Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1955 to form the AFL-CIO.

1993 – NAFTA signed into law by President Bill Clinton
Congress passed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that requires the removal of most tariffs and restrictions on trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Under NAFTA a corporation can sue a foreign government and can force the taxpayers of the defendant nation to pay the corporation for any profits it might have earned if the nation had not passed laws that “restricted free trade.” NAFTA expanded the “rights” of multinational corporations, giving them even greater powers than many sovereign governments

1998 – Article details how corporation used its “Civil Rights” to force cell tower erection
The article “Activist Electrifies Wellfleet Tower Opposition,” published this day in Cape Cod News, describes how the Omnipoint Corporation threatened to file a lawsuit under Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to force the erection of a cell tower in Wellfleet on Cape Cod Bay in Massachusetts.
“Citizens had organized against the tower being placed in the steeple of the First Congregational Church, located in the middle of town, based on human health concern.
“The Planning Board voted against the tower. Omnipoint Corporation threatened a lawsuit if the decision was not reversed, saying its “civil rights” were being violated.
“After meeting with lawyers for the Town and the Corporation behind closed doors, the Planning Board reversed itself.
“Town selectman Dale Donovan described the result of the Corporation’s wielding judicially granted constitutional rights:
“Our legal counsel said, ‘You’re dead in the water on this one.’ How much of the people’s money can we spend to defend something? There’s legislation at the federal level, and you can no longer defend the principle without saying we’re going to have to throw $250,000 at something. It’s really a problem and a burden for small towns everywhere.”

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: November 25 – December 1

November 25

1874 — Greenback Party founded
The Greenback Party was founded on this day at a convention in Indianapolis. Many of its members were farmers hurt by the financial Panic of 1873 (also known as the “Crime of ‘73”). The party supported “Greenback” paper money (U.S. Notes) issued and spent into circulation by the Lincoln administration. They opposed all money systems backed by any precious metal, believing that those who owned gold or silver (banks and corporations) would possess the power to define the value of products and labor. Government control of the US money system would also ensure sufficient quantity of money was in circulation to help small businesses and farmers. Twenty-one independent congressmen, mostly Greenbackers, were elected in 1878.

1968 — Death of Upton Sinclair, advocate of California economic cooperative program
“It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it.“
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/End_Poverty_in_California_movement

2008 – Report on corporate “Three Strikes and You’re Out” passed ordinance in Pennsylvania
“The ‘Wayne Township Ordinance’ (Mifflin County, PA) was enacted into law in 1998 by a 3-0 vote. It prohibits any corporation from doing business in the township (even those that are already located there) if it has a history of consistently violating any regulatory laws (environmental, labor, etc), and further prohibits any corporation from doing business there if any of its current directors sit on other corporate boards which consistently violate regulatory law. The law goes into effect if there are three ‘violations’ over a fifteen year period. The term ‘violations’ is broadly defined within the Ordinance, and includes Notices of Violation, court proceedings, and any violation of state, local, or federal statutory or regulatory law.” Read the full ordinance at https://ilsr.org/rule/corporate-accountability/2156-2/

November 26

2003 — Statement of Lewis Pitts, former Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD) principal
“I think what I believe is totally balanced and therefore moderate. I think the essential political unit is the individual, and not corporations. So in that sense I guess I’m a populist.”
http://www.indyweek.com/indyweek/lifetime-fighter/Content?oid=1190831

November 27

2012 – Published article, “Reconsider Buckley v. Valeo” by Sam Fedele, OpEd News
“ Buckley’s ‘money is speech’ doctrine also puts space between members of the privileged class itself by creating a form of speech which scales with wealth. The more money one has the more speech one has. This rings Orwellian. Some speakers are more equal than others. And with the media focus of modern elections, political speech that effectively reaches the masses is reserved for the modern aristocracy alone.”
http://www.opednews.com/articles/Reconsider-Buckley-v-Vale-by-Sam-Fedele-121126-574.html

November 28

1962 – Birth of Jon Stewart, American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host — on democracy
“You have to remember one thing about the will of the people: It wasn’t that long ago that we were swept away by the Macarena.”

2011 — Published article, “’We the People’ versus ‘We the Corporation’: Sentiment Builds for Banning Corporate Personhood, But Tough Road Ahead” by Steven Rosenfeld
“Across the country, momentum has been building for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution declaring that the democratic rights and freedoms granted to people do not apply to corporations and corporate entities…

“There has been an ebb and flow of those rights and powers for more than a century. But in the past 30 years, culminating in Citizens United, the balance of power between individuals and corporations has swung away from average citizens to the richest and most powerful institutions. That is because they have found new ways to spend money in campaigns and have been awarded new speech rights in federal court.”
http://www.alternet.org/story/153185/%27we_the_people%27_versus_%27we_the_corporation%27%3A_sentiment_builds_for_banning_corporate_personhood%2C_but_tough_road_ahead

November 29

1816 — Birth of Morrison Waite, Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court
Waite presided over the Supreme Court during the ruling of Santa Clara v. Southern Pacific Railroad (118 U.S. 394, 1886), which first established that corporations possessed Constitutional Amendment “rights” – sort of.

The Justices themselves did not specifically make their decision in favor of the railroad on constitutional grounds. Instead, J.C. Bancroft Davis, court reporter and former banker, transcribed this oral remark in the decision’s “headnotes” (which summarized the case): “The court does not wish to hear argument on the question whether the provision in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which forbids any state to deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws, applies to these corporations. We are of the opinion that it does.”

The remark appeared in the headnotes, but nowhere else. Morrison agreed with the wording and its placement. It set a precedent, which was cited in succeeding Supreme Court cases granting corporations 14th Amendment and other constitutional rights.

1864 – Sand Creek Massacre (this year is the 155th anniversary)
Approximately 675 United States soldiers under the command of Colonel John Chivington (born in Ohio) killed more than 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho villagers, mostly elderly men, women, and children, approximately 180 miles southeast of Denver near Eads, Colorado. Despite assurance from American negotiators that they would be safe, and despite Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle raising both a United States flag and a white flag as symbols of peace, Colonel Chivington ordered his troops to take no prisoners and to pillage and set the village ablaze, violently forcing the ambushed and outnumbered Cheyenne and Arapaho villagers to flee on foot. Colonel Chivington, also by the way an ordained pastor, and his troops paraded mutilated body parts of men, women, and children in downtown Denver, Colorado, in celebration of the massacre.

1898 – Birth of C.S. Lewis, British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecture
“The greatest evil is not now done in those sordid ‘dens of crime’ that Dickens loved to paint. It is not done even in concentration camps and labour camps. In those we see its final result. But it is conceived and ordered (moved, seconded, carried, and minuted) in clean, carpeted, warmed and well-lighted offices, by quiet men with white collars and cut fingernails and smooth-shaven cheeks who do not need to raise their voices. Hence, naturally enough, my symbol for Hell is something like the bureaucracy of a police state or the office of a thoroughly nasty business concern.” ― C.S. Lewis, The Screwtape Letters

November 30

1930 — Death of Mother Jones, worker’s rights activist
“Pray for the dead and fight like hell for the living.”
“I asked a man in prison once how he happened to be there and he said he had stolen a pair of shoes. I told him if he had stolen a railroad he would be a United States Senator.”
“Injustice boils in men’s hearts as does steel in its cauldron, ready to pour forth, white hot, in the fullness of time.”

1990 — Death of Norman Cousins
“In a democracy, the individual enjoys not only the ultimate power but carries the ultimate responsibility”

1999 — First day of WTO meetings and “Battle of Seattle” against global corporatization (this year is the 20th anniversary)
More than 40,000 individuals from across the world, the largest demonstration up to that time, gathered to protest international trade agreements. They opposed the anti-democratic, anti-worker, anti-consumer and anti-environmental efforts to establish a global “trade” organization that would “harmonize” (i.e. reduce to lowest common denominator) national laws and regulations in ways that would be corporate-friendly.

Protestors effectively shut down the negotiations before a final agreement was reached. The protests emboldened representatives from less developed countries that argued that they and their people and natural resources would be exploited by the proposed terms.

December 1

1885 – Dodge v. Woolsey (59 U.S. 331) Supreme Court decision – corporations are “creatures of the state”
The United States Supreme Court has reaffirmed the principle that corporations are “creatures of the state” in at least thirty-six different rulings. This is one of them.

1922 – Birth of Alexander Carey, Australian writer and social psychologist
“The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of great political importance. The growth of democracy; the growth of corporate power; and the growth of corporate propaganda against democracy.”

1955 – Rosa Parks refuses to surrender her seat to a white passenger, is arrested, leading to Montgomery Bus Boycott
Parks was a civil rights activist with the NAACP. She attended a civil rights leadership-training workshop at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee earlier in the year. Her defiance resulted in her arrest, sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott. With downtown businesses suffering financial losses and the Supreme Court upholding a lower court decision declaring racial segregation laws unconstitutional, the boycott ended after 381 days. The boycott was an important marker in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s.

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: November 18 – 24

November 18

2010 – Published article this month “Why Abolish All Corporate Constitutional Rights”
“Corporations are creations of the state. As we documented in many resources over many years, they couldn’t exist in any form without the legal sanctioning of government. Since citizens are the source of all legitimate power in any representative democracy, We the People have the power to define corporations any way we see fit. We the People have rights and authority. Originally, corporations only possessed privileges bestowed by the state.

“The appointed-for-life US Supreme Court “found” corporations in numerous places in the US Constitution over the past 124 years. These “findings” gave rights to corporations, including many of those in the Bill of Rights. In other words, illegitimate corporate power didn’t begin in 2010. The corporate perversion of rights and the Constitution has resulted in the destruction of our communities, economy, politics and natural world in many ways for a very long time.

“POCLAD believes ALL corporate constitutional rights should be abolished. These include at least the following…”
Complete article at http://poclad.org/BWA/2010/BWA_2010_NOV.html

November 19

1600 — Birth of King Charles
“In 1629, King Charles I granted a charter to the Massachusetts Bay Company. In 1664, the King sent inspectors to see whether this company had been complying with the terms of the charter. The company heads objected, declaring that such an inspection threatened their rights. On behalf of the King, the inspectors responded:

“The King did not grant away his sovereignty over you when he made you a corporation. When His Majesty gave you power to make wholesome laws, and to administer justice by them, he parted not with his right of judging whether justice was administered accordingly or not. When His Majesty gave you authority over such subjects as live within your jurisdiction, he made them not YOUR subjects, nor YOU their supreme authority.”

2012 – “Justice Alito, Citizens United and the Press” New York Times editorial
“’The question is whether speech that goes to the very heart of government should be limited to certain preferred corporations; namely, media corporations,’ [Alito] said in a speech to the Federalist Society, a conservative group. ‘Surely the idea that the First Amendment protects only certain privileged voices should be disturbing to anybody who believes in free speech.’

“But Justice Alito’s argument wrongly confuses the matter. It is not the corporate structure of media companies that makes them deserving of constitutional protection. It is their function — the vital role that the press plays in American democracy — that sets them apart. “

November 20

1942 — Birth of Joe Biden, former Vice President of the United States – on political campaign contributions
“You have to go where the money is. Now where the money is, there’s almost always implicitly some string attached. … It’s awful hard to take a whole lot of money from a group you know has a particular position then you conclude they’re wrong [and] vote no.” [NOTE: He should know!]

November 21

1996 — Founding of the Alliance for Democracy at Texas convention
Delegates from 30 states attended the 3-day founding convention in Texas. The Alliance was one of the earliest modern-day “democracy” organizations. Its goal was to “free all people from corporate domination of politics, economics, the environment, culture and information; to establish true democracy; and to create a just society with a sustainable, equitable economy…Piecemeal reform isn’t enough anymore. The corporate system will not permit us to win anything fundamental by politics as usual. We see our unique role as seeking the deep systemic change we’ll need to win our independence from corporate rule and replace it with true democracy.” http://www.thealliancefordemocracy.org

One of their three original national campaigns was, “Transforming the nature of large corporations to subordinate them to democracy.” They eventually established 55 local Alliance affiliates and dozens of local ‘Democracy Brigades’ to add a nonviolent direct action campaign component to its work.

1944 — Birth of Dick Durbin, US Senator (IL) on power of banking corporations
“The banks — hard to believe in a time when we’re facing a banking crisis that many of the banks created — are still the most powerful lobby on Capitol Hill. And they frankly own the place.”
Interview on WJJG 1530 AM’s “Mornings with Ray Hanania,” April 2009

[NOTE: The FIRE sector — Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate — is the #1 sector of political campaign investments (mistakenly called “”contributions”” or “”donations””) to federal political candidates. They also employ thousands of lobbyists at state and federal levels who often write the laws and regulations on financial issues.]

November 22

1929 – Birth of Staughton Lynd, US conscientious objector, Quaker, peace activist and civil rights activist, tax resister, historian, lawyer
“[N]o culture can be realistically and effectively analyzed by those who elect to leave its central idols untouched; and, if fundamental change is required, it does no good to simply landscape the ground on which these idols stand.”

1971 — Supreme Court decision grants 14th Amendment to women
The Supreme Court ruled for the first time in Reed v. Reed (40,U.S. 71) that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited differential treatment based on sex. By comparison, the Supreme Court first ruled that the 14th Amendment applied to corporations in 1886.

2011 — Death of Richard Grossman, Co-Founder, Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD)
“Sovereignty is in our hands now…when the people running a corporation assume rights and powers which the sovereign had not bestowed or when they assault the sovereign people, this entity becomes as affront to our body politic. And like a cancer ravaging a human body, such a rebellious corporation must be cut out of our body politic.” Corporations, Accountability and Responsibility memorandum from Richard Grossman

Reflections on his life by his POCLAD colleagues are at http://poclad.org/BWA/2011/BWA_2011_DEC.h

November 23

2016 – “Betsy DeVos, Trump’s Big-Donor Education Secretary” by Jane Mayer article published in New Yorker
“Trump may have run against big money in politics, but his choice for Education Secretary has made no apologies about her family’s political spending. Betsy DeVos has been a major financial backer of legal efforts to overturn campaign-spending limits. In 1997, she brashly explained her opposition to campaign-finance-reform measures that were aimed at cleaning up so-called ‘soft money,’ a predecessor to today’s unlimited ‘dark money’ election spending. ‘My family is the biggest contributor of soft money to the Republican National Committee,’ she wrote in the Capitol Hill newspaper Roll Call. ‘I have decided to stop taking offense,’ she wrote, ‘at the suggestion that we are buying influence. Now I simply concede the point. They are right. We do expect something in return. We expect to foster a conservative governing philosophy consisting of limited government and respect for traditional American virtues. We expect a return on our investment.’”
http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/betsy-devos-trumps-big-donor-education-secretary

November 24

1908 – Opening of nation’s first credit union, “La Caisse Populaire, Ste-Marie,” in Manchester New Hampshire
Credit unions are financial cooperatives, member-owned and democratically controlled by their members to meet the basic financial services of those members and they often support community development. La Caisse Populaire, Ste-Marie (The People’s Bank, later changing its name to St. Mary’s Cooperative Credit Association) helped the primarily Franco-American mill workers save and borrow money.

“Over the years, St. Mary’s Bank helped members through difficult times, including the Great Depression and the bankruptcy of Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in 1935. When thousands of banks failed during the Great Depression, St. Mary’s Bank remained open, even during the “Bank Holiday” of 1933, when President Roosevelt closed all banks nationwide. St. Mary’s Bank also survived the economic disruptions of the early 1990’s, which saw the failure of many familiar Manchester banks.”
https://www.stmarysbank.com/nav/about-us/history

1961 – Birth of Arundhati Roy, Indian author and political activist involved in human rights and the environment
“Our strategy should be not only to confront empire, but to lay siege to it. To deprive it of oxygen. To shame it. To mock it. With our art, our music, our literature, our stubbornness, our joy, our brilliance, our sheer relentlessness – and our ability to tell our own stories. Stories that are different from the ones we’re being brainwashed to believe.

“The corporate revolution will collapse if we refuse to buy what they are selling – their ideas, their version of history, their wars, their weapons, their notion of inevitability.

“Remember this: We be many and they be few. They need us more than we need them.

“Another world is not only possible, she is on her way. On a quiet day, I can hear her breathing.”

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